How Yom Teruah Became Rosh Hashanah

1st day, Seventh Month, Tishrei, Torah, holy day, Yom Teruah, Day of Shouting, day of rest, work, forbidden, Exodus, celebration, Yom Kippur, day of atonement, Leviticus, numbers, Feast of Sukkot, Booths, Israelites, festivals, trumpet, ram’s horn, shofar, Joshua, Jericho, Yehovah, Zichron, memorial, Hebrew, Rosh Hashanah, head of the year, New Years, pagan, Babylonian, jewish nation, Talmud, Tammuz, weeping over Tammuz, mythology, Middle East, rabbinical calendar, Tanakh, Jews, Rabbis, Judea, Exile, judaism, lunar-solar calendar, biblical calendar, Akitu, paganism, Moses, Children of Israel, Shabbaton, holy convocation, Sabbatical year, Jubilee year, 50th year, 49th year, agriculture cycle, Land of Israel, KaraiteOn the 1st day of the Seventh Month (Tishrei) the Torah commands us to observe the holy day of Yom Teruah which means “Day of Shouting” (Leviticus 23:23-25; Numbers 29:1-6). Yom Teruah is a day of rest on which work is forbidden.

One of the unique things about Yom Teruah is that the Torah does not say what the purpose of this holy day is. The Torah gives at least one reason for all the other holy days and two reasons for some. The Feast of Matzot (Unleavened Bread) commemorates the Exodus from Egypt, but it is also a celebration of the beginning of the barley harvest (Exodus 23:15; Leviticus 23:4–14). The Feast of Shavuot (Weeks) is a celebration of the wheat harvest (Exodus 23:16; 34:22). Yom Ha-Kippurim is a national day of atonement as described in great detail in Leviticus 16. Finally, the Feast of Sukkot (Booths) commemorates the wandering of the Israelites in the desert and is also a celebration of the ingathering of agricultural produce (Exodus 23:16). In contrast to all these Torah festivals, Yom Teruah has no clear purpose other than that we are commended to rest on this day.

Nevertheless, the name of Yom Teruah provides a clue as to its purpose. Teruah literally means to make a loud noise. This word can describe the noise made by a trumpet but it also describes the noise made by a large gathering of people shouting in unison (Numbers 10:5–6). For example,

And it shall come to pass when the ram’s horn makes a long blast, when you hear the sound of the shofar, the entire nation will shout a great shout, and the wall of the city shall fall in its place, and the people shall go up as one man against it.”

-Joshua 6:5

In this verse the word “shout” appears twice, once as the verb form of Teruah and a second time as the noun form of Teruah. Although this verse mentions the sound of the shofar (ram’s horn), the two instances of Teruah do not refer to the shofar. In fact, in this verse, Teruah refers to the shouting of the Israelites which was followed by the fall of the walls of Jericho.

While the Torah does not explicitly tell us the purpose of Yom Teruah, its name may indicate that it is intended as a day of public prayer. The verb form of Teruah often refers to the noise made by a gathering of the faithful calling out to the Almighty in unison. For example:

  • Clap hands, all nations, shout to God, with a singing voice!” (Psalms 47:2)

  • Shout to God, all the earth!” (Psalms 66:1)

  • Sing to God, our strength, shout to the God of Jacob!” (Psalms 81:2)

  • Shout to Yehovah, all the earth!” (Psalms 100:1)

In Leviticus 23:24, Yom Teruah is also referred to as Zichron Teruah. The word Zichron is sometimes translated as “memorial”, but this Hebrew word also means to “mention”, often in reference to speaking the name of Yehovah. For example, Exodus 3:15; Isaiah 12:4; Isaiah 26:13; Psalms 45:17[Heb. 18]. The day of Zichron Teruah, the “Mentioning Shout”, may refer to a day of gathering in public prayer in which the crowd of the faithful shouts the name of Yehovah in unison.

Today, few people remember the biblical name of Yom Teruah and instead it is widely known as "Rosh Hashanah" which literally means “head of the year” and hence also “New Years”. The transformation of Yom Teruah (Day of Shouting) into Rosh Hashanah (New Years) is the result of pagan Babylonian influence upon the Jewish nation. The first stage in the transformation was the adoption of the Babylonian month names. In the Torah, the months are numbered as First Month, Second Month, Third Month, etc (Leviticus 23; Numbers 28). During their sojourn in Babylonia our ancestors began to use the pagan Babylonian month names, a fact readily admitted in the Talmud:

The names of the months came up with them from Babylonia.” (Jerusalem Talmud, Rosh Hashanah 1:2 56d)

The pagan nature of the Babylonian month names is epitomized by the fourth month known as Tammuz. In the Babylonian religion, Tammuz was the god of grain whose annual death and resurrection brought fertility to the world. In the book of Ezekiel, the prophet described a journey to Jerusalem in which he saw the Jewish women sitting in the Temple “weeping over Tammuz” (Ezekiel 8:14). The reason they were weeping over Tammuz is that, according to Babylonian mythology, Tammuz had been slain but had not yet been resurrected. In ancient Babylonia, the time for weeping over Tammuz was the early summer, when the rains cease throughout the Middle East and green vegetation is burnt by the unrelenting sun. To this day the Fourth Month in the rabbinical calendar is known as the month of Tammuz and it is still a time for weeping and mourning.

Some of the Babylonian month names found their way into the later books of the Tanakh, but they always appear alongside the Torah month names. For example, Esther 3:7 says:

In the First Month, which is the month of Nissan, in the twelfth year of King Achashverosh.”

This verse starts off by giving the Torah name for the month (“First Month”) and then translates this month into its pagan equivalent (“which is the month of Nissan”). By the time of Esther, all the Jews lived within the boundaries of the Persian Empire and the Persians had adopted the Babylonian calendar for the civil administration of their realm. At first, the Jews used these Babylonian month names alongside the Torah month names, but over time the Torah month names fell into disuse.

As the Jewish People became more comfortable with the Babylonian month names, they became more susceptible to other Babylonian influences. This is similar to the way that American Jews observe  Hanukkah as a Jewish version of Christmas. This influence began with the seemingly harmless custom of giving gifts on Hanukkah. Until the Jews arrived in America this custom was unknown and it is still a rarity in Israel where Hanukkah does not need to compete with Christmas for the hearts and minds of the Jewish youth. Once Hanukkah took on this relatively trivial aspect of Christmas, it became ripe for more significant influences. Today, many American Jews have established the custom of setting up a “Hanukkah bush” as a Jewish alternative to the Christmas tree. These Jews did not want to adopt Christmas outright so they “Judaized” the Christmas tree and incorporated into Hanukkah. This example shows how easy it is to be influenced by the practices of a foreign religion, especially when there is some similarity to begin with. The fact that Hanukkah often falls out around the same time as Christmas made it natural for American Jews to incorporate elements of Christmas into their observance of Hanukkah.

Just as the Jews of America have been influenced by Christmas, the ancient Rabbis were influenced by the pagan Babylonian religion. Although many Jews returned to Judea when the Exile officially ended in 516 BCE, the forebears of the Rabbis remained behind in Babylonia where rabbinical Judaism gradually took shape. Many of the earliest known Rabbis such as Hillel I were born and educated in Babylonia. Indeed, Babylonia remained the heartland of Rabbinical Judaism until the fall of the Gaonate in the 11th Century CE. The Babylonian Talmud abounds with the influences of Babylonian paganism. Indeed, pagan deities even appear in the Talmud recycled as "Jewish" angels and demons.1

One field of Babylonian religious influence was in the observance of Yom Teruah as a New Years celebration. From very early times the Babylonians had a lunar-solar calendar very similar to the biblical calendar. The result was that Yom Teruah often fell out on the same day as the Babylonian New Years festival of “Akitu”. The Babylonian Akitu fell out on the 1st day of Tishrei which coincided with Yom Teruah on the 1st day of the Seventh Month. When Jews started calling the "Seventh Month" by the Babylonian name "Tishrei", it paved the way for turning Yom Teruah into a Jewish Akitu. At the same time, the Rabbis did not want to adopt Akitu outright so they Judaized it by changing the name of Yom Teruah (Day of Shouting) to Rosh Hashanah (New Years). The fact that the Torah did not give a reason for Yom Teruah no doubt made it easier for the Rabbis to proclaim it the Jewish New Years.

It is outright bizarre to celebrate Yom Teruah as New Years. This biblical festival falls out on the first day of the Seventh Month. However, in the context of Babylonian culture this was perfectly natural. The Babylonians actually celebrated Akitu, New Years, twice every year, once on the first of Tishrei and again six months later on the first of Nissan. The first Babylonian Akitu celebration coincided with Yom Teruah and the second Akitu coincided with the actual New Years in the Torah on the first day of the First Month. While the Rabbis proclaimed Yom Teruah to be New Years, they still recognized that the 1st day of the “First Month” in the Torah was, as its name implied, also a New Years. They could hardly deny this based on Exodus 12:2 which says:

This month shall be for you the beginning of months; it is first of the months of the year.”

The context of this verse speaks about the celebration of the Feast of Unleavened Bread which falls out in the First Month. In light of this verse, the Rabbis could not deny that the first day of the First Month was a biblical New Years. But in the cultural context of Babylonia, where Akitu was celebrated as New Years twice a year, it made perfect sense that Yom Teruah could be a second New Years even though it was in the Seventh Month.

In contrast to Babylonian paganism, the Torah does not say or imply that Yom Teruah has anything to do with New Years. On the contrary, the Feast of Sukkot (Booths), which takes place exactly two weeks after Yom Teruah, is referred to in one verse as “the going out of the year” (Exodus 23:16). This would be like calling January 15 in the modern Western calendar “the going out of the year”. the Torah would not describe Sukkot in this manner if it intended Yom Teruah to be celebrated as a New Years.

Some modern Rabbis have argued that Yom Teruah is actually referred to as Rosh Hashanah in Ezekiel 40:1, which describes a vision that the prophet had, “At the beginning of the year (Rosh Hashanah) on the tenth of the month”. In fact, Ezekiel 40:1 proves that the phrase "Rosh Hashanah" does not mean “New Years”. Instead, it retains its literal sense of “the head of the year” referring to the First Month in the Torah calendar. The 10th day of Rosh Hashanah in Ezekiel 40:1 refers to the 10th day of the First Month.

Yom Teruah is mentioned in the following biblical passages:

  • "And Yehovah spoke unto Moses saying, Speak to the Children of Israel saying, In the Seventh month on the first of the month will be a day of rest (Shabbaton) for you, a Remembrance Shouting, a holy convocation. You shall do no work and you will bring a fire sacrifice to Yehovah." Leviticus 23:23-25

  • "And in the Seventh month on the first of the month will be a holy convocation for you; you shall do no work, it will be a Day of Shouting for you..." Numbers 29:1-6

Q: What about Leviticus 25:9?

A: Some people have argued that Yom Teruah should be considered New Years because it is the beginning of the Sabbatical year. However, the Torah does not say that Yom Teruah is the beginning of the Sabbatical year and all indications are that the Sabbatical year begins on the 1st day of the First Month. The Torah does say the following:

And you shall pass a shofar of blasting in the Seventh Month on the tenth of the month; on the Day of Atonement, you shall pass a shofar throughout all your land.” (Leviticus 25:9)

This verse is saying that a shofar should be used to announce the arrival of the Jubilee year, the 50th year in the Sabbatical system. It does not say that the Jubilee begins on the Day of Atonement, only that the impending arrival of the Jubilee year is announced on the Day of Atonement. The shofar is to be passed throughout the land on Yom Kippur of the 49th year, six months before the beginning of the coming Jubilee year. This interpretation is supported by the immediate context in Leviticus 25. Verse 8 says to count forty nine years, verse 9 says to pass the shofar throughout the land, and verse 10 says to proclaim the 50th year as the Jubilee. This shows that the shofar announcing the coming Jubilee in verse 9 is passed through the land before the Jubilee is actually proclaimed in verse 10.

Q: Isn’t the Seventh Month the beginning of the agricultural cycle?

A: In the Torah the middle of the Seventh Month is actually the end of the agriculture cycle, specifically of the grain cycle. In the Land of Israel, grains are planted in Autumn and harvested in Spring. The new agricultural cycle would not actually begin until the plowing of the fields. This would not take place until the first light rains which moisten the ground enough to be broken by iron and wooden plows. In the Land of Israel, this could be as early as the middle of the Seventh Month but is usually in the Eighth Month or later. By the above logic, the Eighth Month should be considered the beginning of the year, not the Seventh Month.

1 Zvi Cahn, The Rise of the Karaite Sect, New York 1937, pages 98–101. Cahn’s central thesis is that the refusal of rabbinical leaders to repudiate the deep-rooted Babylonian paganism that had infiltrated Babylonian Judaism led to the rise of the Karaite back-to-the-Bible movement in the early Middle Ages. In this context, Cahn gives a detailed list of various pagan influences in rabbinical Judaism.

 

98 thoughts on “How Yom Teruah Became Rosh Hashanah

  1. Thank you for a great study, Nehemiah. The details you provided made the influence of Babylonian practices on the development of Rosh Hashana quite obvious.

    From all of the evidence, it is very clear that Yom Teruah occurs in the seventh month. That, in turn, means that new agricultural cycles start near the beginning of the eighth month of the year (in the fall) as you mentioned.

    However, that raises a question – if a new agricultural cycle begins in the eighth month, then how does that work with regard to Shemitah years? In other words, exactly when do people refrain from sowing and reaping – if sowing happens in the fall of one calendar year, and reaping happens in the spring of the NEXT calendar year?

    The easiest way to explain this issue is with two examples. For the first example, suppose we are in the eighth month of “year 6”, in a Sabbath year cycle. Year 6 is not a Shemitah year, of course – so presumably plants CAN be sowed in the fall of that year. However, if plants are sown at that time, then they will be growing into the spring of the next year – and the next year IS a Shemitah year. So, if plants are sown in the fall of “year 6”, then they will be growing into the spring of the Shemitah year – and the whole point of the Shemitah year is that there should NOT be sown plants growing in the Shemitah year!

    For the second example, suppose we are in the eighth month of a Shemitah year. Certainly, Scripture is clear that no plants can be sown (or reaped) in a Shemitah year. However, if no plants are sown in eighth month of a Shemitah year, then there will be no plants to harvest in the spring of the next year – and the next year is NOT a Shemitah year. In other words, not sowing plants in the fall of a Shemitah year means that there will not be any harvest in the next, non-Shemitah year – and there SHOULD be harvests in non-Shemitah years!

    Of course, Rabbinical Judaism does not have to deal with the above issue – because they believe that Yom Teruah is the beginning of the FIRST month. With that belief, a new agricultural cycle begins near the second month – and that, in turn, means that sowing of plants AND subsequent reaping of them occur within the SAME calendar year. With that belief, there is no problem with observing Shemitah years.

    So, what is your understanding of the above issue? In particular, do you have any information about how Karaite farmers who live in Israel observe the Shemitah year? Thanks for any information you can provide!

    • Hi,

      I did some additional research on the issue I mentioned in my last post – the issue of when, exactly, the Shemitah year begins. In particular, I found another Karaite site, which addresses that very issue!

      The Karaite Jews of America have produced a work called the Mikdash Me’at, which is an English-language summary of the classic Karaite work called the Adderet Eliyahu. Here is the link to the entire Mikdash Me’at page: http://www.karaites.org/reading-room.html

      Section 7 of the Mikdash Me’at addresses a number of issues around Yom Teruah – including when the Shemitah year begins. Here is the relevant information:

      — Begin section —

      It is clear that the First Month (the month in which Chag HaMatzot falls) is one of the two starts to the
      year because it is explicitly referred to as the First Month in the Torah and because it is written
      regarding the First Month: “This month shall be for you the beginning of months, it shall be for you the
      first month of the months of the year” (Exodus 12:2). Throughout the Torah all important dates and
      holidays are counted with respect to the First Month; thus, the First Month is the general start of the
      year and the start of the year for the counting of holidays.

      The Seventh Month too marks another start to the year. In particular, Chag HaSukkot which occurs in
      the Seventh Month is referred to as both “the turning of the year” (Exodus 34:22) and the “feast of
      gathering at the leaving of the year” (Exodus 23:16). Although this particular phrasing literally refers to
      Chag HaSukkot as the “leaving of the year”, since the year is cyclical the end of the year is also its
      beginning.

      Further proof that the Seventh Month marks another start to the year can be drawn from the laws of
      shemita (the Sabbatical year, occurring every seven years) and yovel (The Jubilee Year, occurring at the
      end of seven shemita years). Every shemita year begins on Chag Ha’Sukkot as it is written “at the end of
      every seven years at the set time of the shemita year, in the holiday of Sukkot” (Deuteronomy 31:10).
      Furthermore, regarding every yovel we are commanded: “Then you will make proclamation with the
      blast of the horn on the tenth day of the Seventh Month…and you will hallow every fiftieth year and
      proclaim freedom throughout the land” (Leviticus 25:9-10).

      As a practical matter, it is also a necessity that the shemita begin in the Seventh Month and not the First
      Month – otherwise we would be required to give the land rest for two years out of every seven which is
      not scripture’s intent. By way of illustration, if the shemita year were to start in the First Month then it
      would be forbidden to harvest crop (see Leviticus 25:5) that spring since the spring would be during the
      shemita year. In the fall of that same year, when the crop harvested in the spring of the upcoming year
      is usually sown, it would be forbidden to sow (see Leviticus 25:4) because it would still be the shemita
      year. Thus, in the spring of the year immediately after the shemita year there would still be no harvest
      and the land would have rested two consecutive years.

      Because the shemita and yovel pertain to matters of business (debts, indentured servitude, the
      gathering of crops), the sages called the Seventh Month the start of the business year.

      — End section —

      Evidently, even some Karaite sages have referred to “two separate beginnings” of a year – one in the first month, and one in the seventh month.

      Personally, I would say that there is just ONE “beginning of the year” – which is on the first day of the first month. In addition to that, though, it appears that the Shemitah year is NOT “synchronized” with the calendar year. Based on the Scriptural passages above, it appears that the Shemitah year – of letting the land rest – begins at Sukkot (in the seventh month) – even though the actual calendar year begins in the first month.

      So, it looks like the Shemitah lasts from one Sukkot to the next Sukkot, which matches the agricultural cycle – but it does not match the calendar year.

      Does anyone else have any thoughts on this? I would certainly welcome any feedback!

  2. “And the Lord said unto him, Go through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that be done in the midst thereof.”
    ‭‭Ezekiel‬ ‭9:4‬ ‭KJV‬‬

    “Cry aloud, spare not, lift up your voice like a trumpet, and show my people their transgression, and the house of Jacob their sins. Yet they seek me daily, and delight to know my ways, as a nation that did righteousness, and forsook not the ordinance of their God: they ask of me the ordinances of justice; they take delight in approaching to God. Wherefore have we fasted, say they, and you see not? wherefore have we afflicted our soul, and you take no notice? Behold, in the day of your fast you find pleasure, and exact all your labors. Behold, you fast for strife and debate, and to smite with the fist of wickedness: you shall not fast as you do this day, to make your voice to be heard on high. Is it such a fast that I have chosen? a day for a man to afflict his soul? is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes under him? will you call this a fast, and an acceptable day to Yehovah? Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that you break every yoke? Is it not to deal your bread to the hungry, and that you bring the poor that are cast out to your house? when you see the naked, that you cover him; and that you hide not thyself from thine own flesh? Then shall your light break forth as the morning, and thine health shall spring forth speedily: and your righteousness shall go before thee; the glory of Yehovah shall be your reward. Then shall you call, and Yehovah shall answer; you shall cry, and he shall say, Here I am. If you take away from the midst of thee the yoke, the putting forth of the finger, and speaking vanity; And if you draw out your soul to the hungry, and satisfy the afflicted soul; then shall your light rise in obscurity, and your darkness be as the noon day: And Yehovah shall guide thee continually, and satisfy your soul in drought, and make fat your bones: and you shall be like a watered garden, and like a spring of water, whose waters fail not. And they that shall be of thee shall build the old waste places: you shall raise up the foundations of many generations; and you shall be called, The repairer of the breach, The restorer of paths to dwell in.” (Isaiah 58:1-12)

  3. The Days of Awe – Ten Days to Cleanse the Conscience?

    Each fall as we cross the plain of Yom Teruah (Feast of Trumpets) and close in on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) each believer must ask themselves, what is the purpose meant by its Creator? Things can become quite complicated when we interpret its meaning through the eyes of both the traditional Judaism and Christianity. Right from the beginning we have two misleading definitions.

    • (Traditional Judaism) Yom Teruah = Rosh Hashanah
    Or
    • (Traditional Christianity) Yom Teruah = Feast of Trumpets

    But Yom Teruah cannot be interpreted as Rosh Hashanah nor Feast of Trumpets. The actual interpretation from Hebrew to English is “Day of Shouting”. Rosh HaShanah is the Babylonian new year and an eleven day festival was held in honor of the god Akitu. The Babylonians saw the crescent moon of the 7th Lunar Month as the mark of the close of one year and the beginning of the next. Jews who were transported to Mesopotamia by King Nebuchadnezzar gradually adopted this day into their culture.

    Using the term “Rosh HaShanah” rather than its true biblical name undermines the Mosaic economy. According to Moses, biblical year does not conclude until the end of the Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot) which occurs about three weeks after the sighting of the new moon of the 7th biblical month.

    One must question traditional Judaism and ask “how can Rosh HaShanah signal the new year when Moses says the year does not end until the feast of Tabernacles? “Then Moses commanded them: “At the end of every seven years… during the Feast of Tabernacles…you shall read this law before them in their hearing” (Deuteronomy 31:10-11). While many believers are appalled at the thought of Passover being confused with the Easter season by the Christian church; they readily celebrate Rosh HaShanah according to Jewish tradition rather than in its biblical context as the Day of Shouting. Many are virtually doing the same thing as their Christian counterparts.

    Those who have come from a Christian perspective have an extra layer of confusion to wade through since interpreters have labeled the “Day of Shouting as “Feast of Trumpets”. This term conjures up priestly figures blowing celebratory instruments at the temple. Here is the verse that has thrown many of us off the trail of truth. “On the first day of the seventh month hold a sacred assembly and do no regular work. It is a day for you to sound the trumpets” (Numbers 29:1). But the word trumpet in this verse is not related to a musical instrument; on the contrary the word means to shout!

    Here is a verse in scripture that helps us differentiate between shouting and blowing a trumpet. The following verse is about David and all Israel when the Ark of the Covenant was transported to Jerusalem. “He (David) and the entire house of Israel brought up the ark of YHWH with shouts (Teruah) and the sound of trumpets” (2 Samuel 6:15). Note here that the people were shouting and the Priests were sounding their trumpets. This indicates two different classes of people and two different actions. So we can conclude that a shout is not synonymous with a trumpet blast.

    The Meaning of Yom Teruah

    The biblical festivals are closely connected to prophecy. The reason why it is needful to undo the damage done by false traditions and incorrect interpretations is to clarify the meaning originally intended by our Creator. In the book of Revelation, we find an interesting passage that points its reader to the anti-typical “Day of Shouting”. It is found in Revelation chapter 18 and says “I saw another angel coming down from heaven… with a “mighty voice he shouted”: “Fallen! Fallen is Babylon the Great! She has become a home for demons and a haunt for every evil spirit, a haunt for every unclean and detestable bird” (Revelation 18:1-2).

    The entire chapter lays out all the destruction coming upon all nations for following the lawless practices of Mother Babylon. ”For her sins are piled up to heaven, and God has remembered her crimes. Give back to her as she has given; pay her back double for what she has done. Mix her a double portion from her own cup” (Revelation 18:5-6). Along with this great shout comes another message of mercy saying “Come out of her, my people, so that you will not share in her sins, so that you will not receive any of her plagues” (Revelation 18:4).

    It is highly likely that this great voice will come from the man sent with the spirit of Elijah as prophesied in the book of Malachi. There it states that a great message of repentance is to be proclaimed for His people “before the great and dreadful day of YHWH comes” (see Malachi chapter 4) I believe that the ten days between Yom Teruah and the Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) relate to the effects of Elijah’s message and cause the great multitude come out of Babylon before the seven plagues commence.

    But neither Elijah, the great tribulation and the seven last plagues have come yet. Today we are commanded to rehearse and contemplate how these events will effect us should the come to pass in our lifetime. According to the writer of Hebrews, The blood of goats and bulls offered on the Day of Atonement were not sufficient to cleanse the conscience (see Hebrews 9:9). These offerings were shadows and types of events that were set to occur far in the future.

    So all the way to the close of the first century the conscience of man has gone uncleansed. You would think that the Israelites who had their Creator so near to them. And experienced firsthand the great deliverance from Egypt, who were spared from the judgments of their fathers who died in the desert would have become a generation with a clear conscience, but that was not the case.

    Moses said “With your own eyes you saw those great trials, those miraculous signs and great wonders. But to this day YHWH has not given you a mind that understands or eyes that see or ears that hear” (Deuteronomy 29:1-4). I believe that the day when His people receive the eyes to see and the mind to understand is not far off. It will occur within a period unlike any other that has ever existed. “There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then” (Daniel 12:1).

    It is within this time frame that the consciences of His people will be cleansed and pure. This prophecy relates to the following passage spoken by Moses. “When all these blessings and curses I have set before you come upon you and you take them to heart wherever YHWH Elohim disperses you among the nations…you will again obey YHWH and follow all his commandments I am giving you today” (See Deuteronomy 30:1-8).

    Unfortunately it will take the curses of the Law written in the covenant to achieve the cleansing of heart mind and soul. Only this is sufficient His people back to full obedience to all the commandments given to His people. The terrors and warnings given to us in the book of Revelation are meant to bring about deep reflection and repentance. Every believer at this time should open their heart to consider whether or not they are in the faith and prepare themselves for the enlightenment of YHWH’s will. “Those whom I love I rebuke and discipline. So be earnest, and repent. (Revelation 3:19)

  4. Fantastic article, Nehemia! Thank you for sharing!

    I want to share 2 more witnesses that support your article …

    The Torah defines the beginning of a sabbath year (shemitah) as the month of the abib, not the month of Tishri.

    When did YeHoVaH dry up the flood waters, and start over with Noah and his sons? In the 1st month, not the 7th month.

    “And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry.” – Genesis 8:13

    When did YeHoVaH bring the Israelites into the Promised Land? In the 1st month, not the 7th month.

    Leviticus 25:2 says, “Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: ‘When you come into the land which I give you, then the land shall keep a sabbath to the Lord.”

    Joshua 3:16 says, “the people crossed over opposite Jericho” and Joshua 4:13 says, “About forty thousand prepared for war crossed over before the Lord for battle, to the plains of Jericho” and Joshua 4:19 says, “Now the people came up from the Jordan on the tenth day of the first month, and they camped in Gilgal on the east border of Jericho.” and Joshua 5:10 says, “Now the children of Israel camped in Gilgal, and kept the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month at twilight on the plains of Jericho.”

    Therefore, according to Leviticus 25:2 and Joshua 5:10, this was the first month (abib) of the first year in the land and it was a sabbath year (shemitah). So all future sabbath years (shemitah) in the land of Israel were counted from this day in the month of the abib.

  5. Well explained the fact that Sukkot brings in the Jubilee year strengthens the argument that the sacred Hebrew calendar is seven months

  6. I wonder about the relationship that is suggested by some that somehow the Seventh month is the first month having something to do with creation. I have not found what I consider satisfactory biblical documentation for that so I’m wondering how did they come up with that?

  7. Where then did the idea or concept come from that the first day of the seventh month was the day of Adam’s creation. Isn’t kingship and coronation one of the prominent themes of Yom teruah and wasn’t Adam a type of king and given dominion over the earth? And what about the Messiah and his return (for those who believe He has already come once) to reign over all the earth, and who is also called the second Adam. It seems pretty clear to me that it’s a celebration of the Almighty’s kingship and the one He has chosen to rule over His people, namely the Messiah.

  8. CÓMO YOM TERUAH LLEGÓ A SER ROSH HASHANAH
    Por Nehemia Gordon, (Traduccion Danny Fernandez)

    La Torah nos instruye observar Yom Teruah, que significa “día de clamar o alzar la voz”, el primer día del mes séptimo (Tishrei). (Levítico 23:23-25; Números 29:1-6). Yom Teruah es un día de reposo en el cual trabajar está prohibido.
    Una de las peculiaridades de Yom Teruah es que la Torah no dice cuál es el propósito de este día santo. La Torah da al menos una razón para guardar los otros días sagrados, y hasta dos motivos para otros. La fiesta de Matzot (Panes sin levadura) conmemora la salida de Egipto, pero a la vez es la celebración del comienzo de la cosecha de la cebada (Éxodos 23:15; Levítico 23:4-14); La Fiesta de Shavuot (Semanas) es una celebración de la cosecha del trigo (Éxodo 23:16; 34:22); Yom HaKipurim es un día de perdón nacional como está detallado en Levítico 16; y finalmente está la Fiesta de Sukot (Cabañas) que conmemora el recorrido de los israelitas por el desierto y que también es una celebración de la cosecha (Éxodo 23:16). En contraste con todas estas fiestas, Yom Teruah no tiene un propósito definido fuera de que se nos instruye reposarlo.
    No obstante, el nombre Yom Teruah nos da una pista sobre su propósito. Teruah literalmente significa hacer un sonido fuerte. Esta palabra puede describir el sonido producido por una trompeta, pero también describe el sonido producido por una gran multitud de personas gritando a unísono (Números 10:5-6).
    “Y cuando tocaren prolongadamente el cuerno de carnero, así que oyereis el sonido de la bocina (shofar), todo el pueblo gritará á gran voz, y el muro de la ciudad caerá debajo de sí: entonces el pueblo subirá cada uno en derecho de sí.” (Josué 6:5)
    En este versículo la palabra “grita” aparece dos veces: una como el verbo teruah (gritará) y la otra como el sustantivo teruah (gran voz). Aunque este versículo menciona el sonido del shofar (cuerno de carnero), las dos instancias de teruah no se refieren al shofar. De hecho, en este versículo teruah se refiere al grito de los israelitas que antecedió a la caída de los muros de Jericó.
    Mientras la Torah no nos dice el propósito específico de Yom Teruah, su nombre puede indicar que este día está destinado como un día de oración pública. El verbo teruah a menudo indica ruido hecho por la congregación de los fieles clamando en unísono al Altísimo. Por ejemplo:
    • PUEBLOS todos, batid las manos; Aclamad á Dios con voz de júbilo. (Salmos 47:1)
    • ACLAMAD á Dios con alegría, toda la tierra: (Salmos 66:1)
    • Cantad con gozo a Dios, fortaleza nuestra; Al Dios de Jacob aclamad con júbilo. (Salmos 81:1)
    • Aclamen alegres a JEHOVÁ, habitantes de toda la tierra; (Salmos 100:1)
    En Levítico 23:24, Yom Teruah es también denominado como Zichron Teruah. La palabra zichron es a veces traducida como “memorial”; pero esta palabra hebrea también significa “mencionar”, muchas veces refiriéndose al nombre de Jehová. Por ejemplo: Éxodo 3:15; Isaías 12:4; 26:13; Salmos 45:18. El dia de Zichron Teruah, “Mención a grito”, puede referirse a un día de reunión pública en donde el grupo de fieles grita a unísono el nombre de Jehová.
    (Nota del traductor: La versión TLA traduce así Salmos 100:1 “Habitantes de toda la tierra,
    griten con todas sus fuerzas: ¡Viva Dios!”)
    Hoy en día pocos son los que recuerdan el nombre bíblico de Yom Teruah llamándolo a cambio “Rosh Hashanah” que literalmente significa “cabeza del año” y por consiguiente “Año Nuevo”. El cambio de Yom Teruah (Día de Grita) a Rosh Hashanah (Año Nuevo), es el resultado de la influencia babilónica sobre la nación judía. La primea etapa del cambio fue la adopción de los nombres babilónicos de los meses. En la Torah los meses son numerados: Mes Primero, Mes Segundo, Mes Tercero, etc. (Levítico 23; Números 28). Durante su estadía en Babilonia, nuestros antepasados comenzaron a usar los nombres paganos babilónicos de los meses, hecho asentado en el Talmud:
    “Los nombres de los meses fueron traídos de Babilonia.” (Talmud de Jerusalem, Rosh Hashanah 1:2 56d)
    La naturaleza pagana de los nombre dados a los meses por los babilonios es personificada por el mes cuarto llamado Tamuz. En la religión de Babilonia, Tamuz era el dios del grano cuya muerte anual y resurrección traía fertilidad al mundo. En el libro de Ezequiel, el profeta describe un viaje a Jerusalén en el cual vio mujeres judías sentadas en el templo llorando por Tamuz (Ezequiel 8:14). La razón por la cual lloraban a Tamuz es que, según la mitología babilónica, Tamuz había muerto pero no había aun resucitado. En la antigua Babilonia, el tiempo de llorar a Tamuz era a principios de verano cuando terminan las lluvias en el medio oriente y la vegetación es quemada por el implacable sol. Hasta el día de hoy, el mes cuarto del calendario rabínico es conocido como el mes de Tamuz, y aún sigue siendo un mes de duelo y llanto.
    Algunos de los nombres babilónicos para los meses se infiltraron en libros más recientes de la Tanak (Antiguo Testamento). Por ejemplo Ester 3:7 dice:
    “En el mes primero, que es el mes de Nisán, en el año duodécimo del rey Assuero, fué echada Pur, esto es, la suerte, delante de Amán, de día en día y de mes en mes; y salió el mes duodécimo, que es el mes de Adar.”
    Este versículo comienza dándole el nombre bíblico al mes (“Mes Primero”), y entonces traduce el nombre a su equivalente pagano (“que es el mes de Nisán”). En los tiempos de Ester, todos los judíos vivían dentro de las fronteras del imperio Persa y los persas habían adoptado el calendario babilónico para los asuntos civiles administrativos del reino. Al principio, los judíos usaban estos nombres babilónicos juntos con los nombres bíblicos; pero con el tiempo los nombres dados en la Torah fueron cayendo en desuso.
    A medida que el pueblo judío fue acostumbrándose al uso de los nombres babilónicos de los meses, fueron siendo más susceptibles a otras influencias babilónicas. Esto es similar a la manera de los judíos americanos observar Hanukah como una versión de Navidad. Esta influencia comenzó con la costumbre, en apariencia inocente, de intercambiar regalos en Hanukah. Esta costumbre era desconocida hasta la llegada de los judíos a América, y aun es una rareza en Israel en donde Hanukah no tiene la necesidad de competir con Navidad en los corazones y las mentes de los jóvenes judíos. Una vez que Hanukah adoptó este aspecto relativamente trivial de la Navidad, estuvo lista para influencias más significativas. Hoy en día muchos judíos americanos tienen como costumbre establecida poner un “arbolito de Hanukah” como alternativa al árbol de Navidad. Estos judíos no querían adoptar la Navidad, entonces “judaizaron” el árbol navideño y lo incorporaron a Hanukah. Este ejemplo muestra cuán fácil es ser influenciado por las prácticas de otras religiones, especialmente cuando ya existen ciertas similitudes. El hecho de que Hanukah coincide con la Navidad, hizo fácil para los judíos incorporar aspectos navideños a la observancia de Hanukah.
    Así como los judíos de América han sido influenciados por la Navidad, los antiguos rabinos fueron influenciados por la religión pagana de Babilonia. A pesar de que muchos judíos retornaron a Judea al oficialmente terminar el exilio en el año 516 a.C., los antepasados de los rabinos permanecieron en Babilonia donde el judaísmo rabínico tomó forma. Muchos de los primeros rabinos como Hillel I nacieron y se educaron en Babilonia. De hecho, Babilonia fue el corazón del judaísmo rabínico hasta la caída del Gaonato en el siglo 11 d.C. El Talmud de Babilonia abunda en influencia pagana babilónica. De hecho, hasta deidades paganas aparecen en el Talmud transformadas en ángeles y demonios “judíos”.
    Un área influenciada por la religión babilónica es la observancia de Yom Teruah como la celebración del Año Nuevo. Desde tiempos remotos los babilonios se guiaban por un calendario lunar¬¬-solar muy similar al calendario bíblico, dando como resultado que Yom Teruah coincidiera en varias ocasiones con la festividad babilónica de Año Nuevo llamada “Akitu”. El Akitu babilónico caía en el primer día del mes Tishrie el cual coincidía con Yom Teruah en el día primero del mes séptimo. Cuando los judíos comenzaron a llamar al “Mes Séptimo” con el nombre babilónico “Tishrie”, se preparó el camino para convertir Yom Teruah en un Akitu judío. Al mismo tiempo los rabinos no querían simplemente adoptar el Akitu, así que lo judaizaron cambiándole el nombre a Yom Teruah (Día de Proclama) a Rosh Hashanah (Año Nuevo). El hecho de que la Torah no da un motivo para la celebración de Yom Teruah, facilitó a los rabinos proclamarlo el Año Nuevo Judío.
    Es una cosa muy extraña celebrar Yom Teruah como Año Nuevo. Esta fiesta bíblica cae en el primer día del mes séptimo. Aun así, en el contexto de la cultura babilónica era algo perfectamente natural. Los babilonios, de hecho, celebraban Akitu (Año Nuevo) dos veces al año: Una, el primero de Tishrie y la segunda vez seis meses más tarde, el primer día de Nisán. La primera celebración babilónica de Akitu coincidía con Yom Teruah, y la segunda con el mismo Año Nuevo en la Torah, el primer día del Mes Primero. Aunque los rabinos proclamaron Yom Teruah como Año Nuevo, aun reconocían que el primer día del Mes Primero en la Torah, tal como su nombre lo indica, era también Año Nuevo. Difícilmente podrían negarlo en base a Éxodo 12:2 que dice:
    “Este mes os será principio de los meses; será este para vosotros el primero en los meses del año.”
    El contexto de este versículo habla sobre la celebración de la Fiesta de los Panes sin Levadura que cae en el Mes Primero. A la luz de este versículo los rabinos no podían negar que el Mes Primero era el Año Nuevo bíblico. Pero en el contexto cultural de Babilonia en donde Akitu era celebrado dos veces cada año, tenía sentido que Yom Teruah pudiera ser un segundo Año Nuevo aunque fuera en el Mes Séptimo.
    En contraste al paganismo babilónico, la Torah no dice y ni siquiera apunta a que Yom Teruah tenga algo que ver con Año Nuevo. Por el contrario, la fiesta de Sucot (Cabañas) que toma lugar exactamente dos semanas después de Yom Teruah, es aludida en un versículo como “la salida del año” (Éxodo 23:16). Esto sería como llamar a enero 15 en nuestro calendario moderno “fin de año”. La Torah no describiría de esta forma la fiesta de Sucot si tuviera la intensión de que Yom Teruah fuera celebrado como Año Nuevo.
    Algunos rabinos modernos han argumentado que Yom Teruah es aludido como Rosh Hashanah en Ezequiel 40:1 donde se describe una visión del profeta “al comienzo del año (Rosh Hashanah) en el día décimo.” De hecho, Ezequiel 40:1 es prueba de que la frase “Rosh Hashanah” /aquí usada/ no significa “Año Nuevo”; sino que es usada en su sentido literal “cabeza del año” refiriéndose al Mes Primero del calendario de la Torah. El día décimo de Rosh Hashanah en Ezequiel 40:1 es el día décimo del Mes Primero.
    Yom Teruah es mencionado en los siguientes pasajes:
    • Y habló Jehová á Moisés, diciendo: Habla á los hijos de Israel, y diles: En el mes séptimo, al primero del mes tendréis sábado, una conmemoración al son de trompetas, y una santa convocación. 25 Ninguna obra servil haréis; y ofreceréis ofrenda encendida á Jehová. (Levítico 23:23-25)
    • Y EL séptimo mes, al primero del mes tendréis santa convocación: ninguna obra servil haréis; os será día de sonar las trompetas.2 Y ofreceréis holocausto por olor de suavidad á Jehová, un becerro de la vacada, un carnero, siete corderos de un año sin defecto;3 Y el presente de ellos, de flor de harina amasada con aceite, tres décimas con cada becerro, dos décimas con cada carnero,4 Y con cada uno de los siete corderos, una décima;5 Y un macho cabrío por expiación, para reconciliaros:6 Además del holocausto del mes, y su presente, y el holocausto continuo y su presente, y sus libaciones, conforme á su ley, por ofrenda encendida á Jehová en olor de suavidad. (Números 29:1-6)
    Pregunta: ¿Cómo se explica Levítico 25:9?
    Respuesta: Algunos discuten que Yom Teruah debe ser considerado Año Nuevo porque es el comienzo del año sabático; pero la Torah no dice que Yom Teruah es el comienzo del año sabático. Todo indica que el año sabático comienza el primer día del Mes Primero. La Torah dice lo siguiente:
    “Entonces harás pasar la trompeta de jubilación en el mes séptimo á los diez del mes; el día de la expiación haréis pasar la trompeta por toda vuestra tierra. (Levítico 25:9)
    Este versículo está diciendo que se debe usar un shofar para anunciar la llegada del Año de Jubileo, el año 50 en el sistema sabático. No dice que el jubileo comienza en el Día del Perdón. Solamente dice que la inminente llegada del Año del Jubileo debe ser anunciada el Día del Perdón. El shofar debe ser escuchado por toda la tierra en el Yom Kipur del año 49, seis meses antes del comienzo del Año del Jubileo. Esta interpretación es apoyada por el contexto inmediato en Levítico 25. El versículo 8 instruye contar 49 años; el versículo 9 instruye tocar el shofar por toda la tierra; y el versículo 10 instruye proclamar el año 50 de jubileo. Esto nos muestra que el shofar anunciando la proximidad del jubileo en el versículo 9 es tocado por toda la tierra antes que el jubileo sea proclamado en el versículo 10.
    Pregunta: ¿Es el Mes Séptimo el comienzo del ciclo de agrícola?
    Respuesta: En la Torah, el ciclo agrícola, y específicamente el siclo del grano, termina a mediados del Mes Séptimo. En la tierra de Israel el grano es sembrado en otoño y cosechado en primavera. El próximo o nuevo ciclo de agricultura no comienza hasta que los campos son arados. Esto no toma lugar hasta la llegada de las primeras lluvias que suavizan la tierra lo suficiente como para romperla con arados de hierro y madera. En la tierra de Israel esto sucede tan temprano como a mediados del Mes Séptimo; pero regularmente sucede en el Mes Octavo o más tarde. Siguiendo la lógica anterior, el Mes Octavo debe ser considerado el comienzo del ciclo y no el Mes Séptimo.

  9. I must admit that I like the audios more than the written material because I am dyslexic but I found this material helpful in understanding where the confusion originated. Unfortunately for me reading is a significant challenge and I have to reread some parts of anything written until it makes sense. Plus at 68 my cataracts increase the difficulty of reading.

  10. Amen, Nehemiah, and keep up the great work you are doing. The first month of Aviv is the Biblical month. There is strong scriptural proof. Numbers 20:22-29 and 33:37-39 show that Aaron died on the first day of the fifth month in the fortieth year. Numbers 33:27-56 are the chronicled events of the Israel’s journeys to their last stop at Jordan Jericho before crossing the Jordan. Deuteronomy 1:1-3 shows that Moses talked to Israel before they crossed over on the first day of the eleventh month of the FORTIETH YEAR, SIX MONTHS AFTER AARON’S DEATH. If Rosh Hashanah was Rosh Hashanah, it would have switched over to the forty-first year, two months after Aaron’s death, but this was not the case. The scriptures show that Rosh Hashanah is “not” the Biblical new year.

  11. Nehemiah, I woke this morning with a blazing question on my mind; Why is the seventh month called the beginning of the year? How amazing to find that, as I had been sleeping (in New Zealand), my Wonderful Creator had orchestrated your sending me an email with a link to the answer…and a very thorough one at that.

    May Yehova continue to be highly esteemed through your dedication brother!

  12. Thank you for your well researched study.
    “Thus saith the LORD of hosts; In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold out of all languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you: for we have heard that God is with you.” Zechariah 8: 23

  13. I can only say I have no words to thank you for that what seems to me the right and acceptable explanation for Yom Teruah becoming Rosh Hashanah.I have been sharing as much as I could about coming 5777 with my people here.Now I have something new and more to share and I will share that too even while extending to you with gratitude to God for the six days of Creation leading to the NEW YEAR 5777 which I pray will be to all Israelites wherever they be the most blessed year yet in their history. HAPPY NEW YEAR TO YOU ALL.

  14. This is a good commentary. It is my understanding that the Resurrection shall take place on Yom Teruah (the feast day in which no one knows the day or the hour). There is a lot of hints at this (Mat 24:31, 1 Cor 15:52, 1 Th 4:16-17). It is also my understanding that Yom Teruah commemorates the day when the cloud came upon Mt. Sinai (with trumpets) and the elders went up into the cloud and ate with the angels. This seems to parallel what is said in 1 Th 4:16-17, ascending into the cloud and the air of Mt. Sinai. I believe that it is likely that the saints will be gathered into Mt. Sinai (the one in Saudi Arabia).

    Although I do not particularly like to set times, Yom Teruah 2017 fits into my calculations perfectly as things seem to align with the days and times given in the prophets. This would mean that Israel would be destroyed by the Russian confederacy (Gog et al.) and the Messiah would split the Mount of Olives in 2027. A friend of mine says that the Messiah will stand upon the Mount of Olives on August 2, 2027 to reveal himself to the world (he has a website dedicated to this). The Messiah would spend the next forty years bringing the world into subjection, building the temple (as seen in Ezekiel), and teaching the truth. The Kingdom would then begin in 2067, which would be the next jubilee (if 2017 and 2067 were jubilees). This may be the 70th jubilee (3500 years), which would make the counting of the years start in 1434 BCE. This is the approximate time of Joshua, but it is hard to say exactly when to start counting.

    Anyways, the Messiah is coming soon so stay vigilant. While we are not “under the law” (under the old covenant of works), we know that those who will be saved “keep the commandments of God.”

    • Regarding the messiah splitting the Mount of Olives, the book of Zechariah doesn’t actually say the messiah will do that. Read chapter 14. The “he” and “his” are YHVH. This prophecy is about YHVH coming and fighting.

  15. how late is the idea that the days before yom teruah is celebration of creation and that yom teruah rosh hashanna is day man was created?

  16. thank you so much for this information; is vital,helpful, and healthy also for us Christians to understand these things-and avoid a lot of terrible mistakes often made regarding the Feasts of YHWH keep up good work and GOD BLESS You!!!

      • Hello Chrystie, Looks like you have misunderstood what David is saying. He did not say that Yom Teruah is the start of the new year, he is saying it is at Passover in the spring. Passover falls in the 1st month of Yahovah’s ordained calendar.

  17. How come when YHVH commands the year to start in spring, the Jewish calendar starts in fall?
    In 12 Shemot you are commanded to not only mark the month of the Passover as the first month of the year but also as the first month. If Torah doesn’t waste words, how could these not be separate commands? So why is the year not 3461, counting from the commanded first month, instead of 5777? In Islam the year is 1437 and the Christian world marks the year as 2016 years from Mohamed’s vision and Jesus’ birth respectively. They all count Adam, Noah and Abraham as their ancestors spiritually if not physically, just not in their calendar. Is this something that’s just over my head for now?

  18. As always you display Yah’s facts and now it is up to us to accept or deny. Thank you for being you. I personally enjoyed this teaching. Yah’s blessings

  19. Fascinating, by this we can say that the jubilee is to announced this yom ha-Kippur and that the jubilee year will begin on the first day of the first month in 2017. Fifty years prior, 1967, Israel saw the restoration of Jerusalem as the capital, fifty years prior to that, Dec of 1917, the world saw the liberation of Jerusalem. What does Yehovah have in store for Israel in 2017-2018? (2018 is 70 years of Israel as the nation who lives again.)

    • I could not agree with you any more I have been telling people the same thing for past three years. I keep looking for the temple to be rebuilt or some another war or peace plan etc: ?

  20. Yes, thank you for this study sir, and it is correct according to the Word of the Lord.
    I just have one question about yom teruah ……- i cant seem to find anywhere in the torah about the first of each month (or the first of aNy month) to be determined by spotting the first moon sliver.
    Im not saying it isnt true ..im saying ive only been seeing that in COMMENTARIES ..not the torah …. [ive been searching concordances all day]

    Ok thank you sir.

    • 24 “Speak to the children of Israel, saying: ‘In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall have a sabbath-rest, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, a holy convocation.

    • If you go to Nehemia’s teachings he explains that the word Rosh Chodesh actually means the first (Rosh) fingerlike sliver (chodesh). The word chodesh has become a word for month in general but originally it meant the first sliver. That is a very basic synopsis of his teaching… Here it is from Karaite Korner:
      “Hodesh” Means New Moon (Day)

      The primary meaning of Hodesh (month) is actually “New Moon” or “New Moon Day” and it is only by extension that it came to mean “month”, that is, the period between one New Moon and the next. This primary meaning is preserved in a number of passages such as 1Sam 20:5 in which Jonathan says to David “Tomorrow is the New Moon (Hodesh)”. Clearly, in this verse Hodesh is used to refer to the specific day on which the month begins and not the entire month. Another passage which uses Hodesh in its primary sense is Ez 46:1 which talks about “The Day (Yom) of the New Moon (Ha-Hodesh)”. Clearly in this verse Hodesh (New Moon) is a specific event and the beginning of the month is the day on which this event (New Moon) occurs.
      http://www.karaite-korner.org/new_moon.shtml
      Grace and Shalom!

  21. So then what is the calendar that they were going by as mentioned in the scriptures below seeing that the Ex 12:2 calendar hadn’t been established yet?

    Ist account of time/Day 1 – Gen 1:5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

    By what means we will track time: – Gen_1:14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

    A tracking of time in correlation with Adams age – Gen_5:5 And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died.

    A tracking of time in regards to Noah – Gen_7:11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the SECOND MONTH, THE SEVENTEENTH DAY OF THE MONTH, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.

    The date when the ark rested – Gen 8:4 And the ark rested IN THE SEVENTH MONTH, ON THE SEVENTEENTH DAY of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.

    Date when the waters decreased – Gen_8:5 And the waters decreased continually until THE TENTH MONTH: IN THE TENTH MONTH, ON THE FIRST DAY OF THE MONTH, were the tops of the mountains seen.

    Date when the waters dried up – Gen_8:13 And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, IN THE FIRST MONTH, THE FIRST DAY OF THE MONTH, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry.

    Gen 8:14 And IN THE SECOND MONTH, ON THE SEVEN AND TWENTIETH DAY OF THE MONTH, was the earth dried.

    Reference to Isaac receiving 100 fold – Gen_26:12 Then Isaac sowed in that land, and received IN THE SAME YEAR an hundredfold: and the LORD blessed him.

    Closing of year and beginning of the next year. – Gen_47:18 When that YEAR WAS ENDED, they came unto him THE SECOND YEAR, and said unto him, We will not hide it from my lord, how that our money is spent; my lord also hath our herds of cattle; there is not ought left in the sight of my lord, but our bodies, and our lands

    Clearly there was some sort of calendar established that above months and days were cited. So what calendar is it?

  22. It’s amazing when you think about it, how blithely people assume they could never be tricked into participating in idolatry and paganistic or occult-ish rituals. I’m a Christian and I refuse to “celebrate” Christmas. What’s to celebrate? Everyone knows that’s not when Christ was born, it’s the old Roman Saturnalia, with a freshly cut fertility symbol right in the living room (topped with a pentacle star to boot). Rabbinic Judaism has those silly evangelicals using “gematria” to “decipher” prophetic codes in the Bible. How is that NOT numerology? And Islam, supposedly a “monotheistic” religion, pays reverence to the 99 names or 100 names, I forget how many. Sorry, but that sounds like polytheism to me. And yet, is any of this the fault of the average believer? Nobody normal wants to break the First Commandment, or to commit blasphemy or idolatry. We’ve been tricked in a million different ways, beguiled into sin and rebellion. And we’re so arrogant and set in our ways, we’d rather blame our problems on material differences than sound like kooky conspiracy theorists and blame an adversarial force. It’s the same divide and conquer game we’ve fallen for since the beginning. Like King Solomon, we’ve been seduced, and now we’re surrounded by alien gods.

    Honestly, I feel like we’re on the cusp of something new coming down the pike. Not a new branch of faith or some unbiblical wishy washy universalism, but a naturally desired return to “primitive” Scripture based faith. I mean, how insane does the world need to get before we finally realize why God commanded us to keep ourselves separate from it?

    • Wow, I loved your comment! Intelligent! I used to claim to be a Christian …not anymore. The church has been deceived and believe the lie, Christmas, Easter, pagan traditions handed down by man. I recommend a book series, “The Original Revelation Series of books” by Paul Sides (Rav Shaul) if you want your eyes to be opened read his books you will never read your bible in the same way again. You can buy them on Amazon or you can check out excerpts of his books at http://www.sabbathcovenant.com

      • I don’t claim to be a Christian any more either. The phrase Christian is only used three times in the NT and two of those times it sounds like it was a word unbelievers were using to describe gentiles who believed in Jesus. The “church” is as close to following God’s word as Rabbinic Judaism is.

      • It’s not! That’s the whole point! Many Jewish sects make regular pilgrimages to the Ukraine, where they go to the graveside of their sects’ founding rabbi, and PRAY TO THEIR DEAD RABBI! Wow!

        Contrast that with the highly attested to death, burial AND resurrection of Yehoshua Messiah. If anyone tells you otherwise they are promulgating a personal agenda and not standing upon the solid foundation of history, Scripture etc.

    • Actually I do believe it’s about when Jesus was born. There are Pagan holidays all over the year but the Ancient Pagan never affiliated the Winter Solstice with Birth. I think Jesus was born on the first day of Hanukkah and Circumcised on the 8th.

      • Y’Shuah was born during Sukkot- not Hanukkah.
        Although He a blazing torch, He is our Tabernacle, and when the nations come up to pay tribute to Him as the KING it is during the festival of Sukkot, His birth week(Zechariah 14:16-21)
        Please go back and read in your Torah, the Kethubim Bet-
        The timing of His birth is given in Matt/Luke/Yohanan(1:14), and the timing of the census, hence Miryam and Yospeh’s trek to Beit Lechem, was during Sukkot- He was born in a Sukkah.
        These are only a few references-
        Shalom

        • He could not possibly be born on a Feast, Rome wouldn’t have enforced that Census in Judea at a time it would interfere with a Pilgrimage festival.

          Also Herod died less then 40 days after he was born, and he died between Purim and Passover.

  23. Todah rabah for the above information and clarification which is what I was searching for. HalleluYah! for you and your dedication in searching out truths.
    Shalom!
    yaacob.

  24. Thank you for this teaching, Nehemiah. This only confirms what I believe YHVH has showed me through His Torah. Others wanted me to believe the Talmudic way but it just didn’t line up with the Torah, especially the part about the Jubilee.
    Blessings to you and your family,
    Leesa

  25. I am a believer in Yahshua but adhere to the Torah as He did. I have learned soooo much TRUTH from you since finding you on Youtube a week ago! I have been studying the videos as well as your writings non stop! THANK YOU for helping clarify the Holy scriptures like never before! May Yehovah bless you!

    • Please let me correct one word in your comment. The seventh word should be “and” rather than “but.” Yeshua kept the Torah and instructed his followers to do the same.

      • Well – lately I thought a lot about what Yeshua meant by that there is LOVE in every command in the Books of Moses. So I ‘disclosed’ my thoughts half publicly in a huge Café to an elderly woman having had cancer therapy this year and – at the same time – to the guy I’m living at. I said: In my eyes, Yeshua wanted us to believe in reincarnation as well, because, the killing commands in Leviticus / Vayikra (= He called), they tell us for to kill or let kill or let us kill for sins [like adultery, defiling animals, cohabitation with some closer relatives, blaspheming (=act against the first three of the Ten Commandments), harlotry of any kind or equal sex with men] exist therefore. Of course, there are ways of purification like fastening or burnt offerings B.C. (but also meat offerings) – The Love behind that is that you keep people from harm of any kind. During the cycle of reincarnations earlier in time, any kind of action resembling adultery (with G-d, that is – breaking the association with The Most High) should be nipped in the bud (or by”cut(ting) off from his people” = Hebrew as exemplary people for all nations). Well, I told them both the like and they would not believe me. After Yeshua, who really wanted to abolish any kind of burnt offerings (for those who believe in him…) in order to make life liveable for any soul community upon earth, we may think about how we punish ourselves for our crimes against humankind esp. even to our selves. Now that the circle is completed and I must say that I’ve known all the effects of NOT LISTENING to the commandments by myself (=”I will even appoint over you terror, consumption, and the burning ague, that shall consume the eyes, and cause sorrow of the heart: …” ) with hindsight. Yet, where is the temple to fulfil the commandments in the Vayikra/Leviticus ? Where are the Priests among the Levites? What did Yeshua say where they were? Ask Jacob – he said. That is, the eldest brother. Do nothing to others what you do not think is right. I think everyone has the inner eye of judgement towards others. For example – I often thought badly versus gays and I found it exciting on the other hand, when men had a close relationship replacing fatherhood with kisses or embraces. Furthermore, I suppose, that not to “cast ye your pearls before swine” is not indicated here, because everyone reaches out here to hear the word of G-d, esp. in these end times … After some troubling events like ‘World Financial Crisis 2’ and civil war and natural catastrophies the Three Days (or 3,5 days) of magnetic pole shift where everyone should stay at home in the base – earthquake-proof of course as possible. Good luck and love&peace to everyhone

      • BTW: People who forgive do not kill – the first stone to be thrown is the stone against the own crimes…yet, Yeshua said, animals are our brothers but we’re worth more than animals because of the Spirit.

  26. Thanks for the very insightful article, Nechemia. Agree that we should be so careful not to mix pagan and false traditions with the holy things of Yehovah – therefore I’m grateful for all the insights you share – TODAH RABAH!
    A Lexion shows that the word ‘shana’ (year) means “to change/cycle, the course of the sun”. An equinox occurs twice a year.. one in Spring and the other in Fall. Yehovah created the sun and the moon for calculating years, and the equinoxes and solstices are His demarcation points in the solar cycle. In calculating a Hebrew Year, the Spring equinox governs the start of a Hebrew Year according to Ex 12:1-2. The 1st day of Unleavened Bread on day 15 of Month 1 is the critical day for calculating a Hebrew year/cycle.
    Is it possible that the Fall equinox refers to another year / cycle / circuit of the sun? (Not a ‘new New Year’… just the beginning of another ‘new’ cycle within Rosh Ha’shana)
    The Hebrew Scriptures use the word “tekufot” to describe the two ends of heaven in the sun’s circuit as viewed from earth – the Spring and Fall equinoxes. The Spring “tekufot” is used as the orientation point to determine the entire Hebrew Year. The word “tekufot’ appears in various forms 4 times in Scripture:
    Exodus 34:22 And you shall observe the Feast of Weeks, of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the Feast of Ingathering at the “tekufot” TURN of the year.
    1 Samuel 1:20 So ‘tekufot’ in the course of time Hannah conceived and gave birth to a son.
    2 Chronicles 24:23 Now it happened at the ‘tekufot’ turn of the year that the army of the Arameans came up against him (Joash)
    Psalms 19:4-6 In them He has set a tabernacle for the sun, which is as a Bridegroom coming out of His chamber, as a champian rejoices to run a race. It rises at one end of heaven “tekufot” and makes its circuit to the other end…
    I’ve read a lot of articles but most of the info in this post I got from “http://www.torahcalendar.com/”
    Is my understanding correct? Any help to shed more light on this topic would be so welcome.
    Kol tov

  27. Thank you Nehemia for this great post. I always wondered where Rosh Hashanah came from. I knew it was tradition but didn’t know it went back all the way to Babylon.

    I have no problem with the Shemitah beginning on Aviv 1. I guess if that is the case, then the barley that is planted the previous year is for everyone to take as they need and the following year would only have volunteer barley.

    Or do you know ahead of time not to plant the barley? Then the following year you plant even though it is before Aviv 1? Is there any historical information about how the Sabbath year was kept in the time of David?

    Either way, from your article, is seems like having two New Years is a lot like what they did in Babylon.

  28. I came to your webpage after searching for “Yom Teruah 2015”. I appreciate the information you provide and the comments and questions which follow. I once experienced people of God lifting one voice in one accord to our Heavenly Father about 30 years ago, and suspect that such a phenomenon will occur this coming Yom Teruah!!! He is SO WORTHY of all glory and honor, praise and adoration, fear and trembling, love and obedience in Messiah!!!

  29. Thank you Nehemia for that clarification – I’m trying to find answers at the moment.

    Question: Could you tell me where you are quoting from for the following, where exactly in the Torah does YHWH say this? “in the Torah the “MIDDLE OF THE SEVENTH MONTH is actually the end of the agriculture cycle, especially the grain cycle”.

  30. Uncovering Ancient Hebrew Sources of Faith – How Yom Teruah Became Rosh Hashanah (German Translation)
    ————————————-
    Nehemia’s Wall
    Die Enthüllung alter hebräischer Quellen des Glaubens – Wie Yom Teruah zu Rosh Hashanah wurde (Deutsche Übersetzung)

    Am 1.Tag des Siebten Monats (Tishrei) befehligt uns die Torah den heiligen Tag Yom Teruah zu halten, welcher bedeutet “Tag des Lärmens” (3.Mose 23:23-25; 4.Mose 29:1-6). Yom Teruah ist ein Tag der Ruhe an dem Arbeit verboten ist. Eines der einzigartigen Dinge bei Yom Teruah ist, daß die Torah keine Aussage darüber macht, was der Zweck dieses heiligen Tages ist. Die Torah gibt wenigstens einen Grund für alle andere heiligen Tage an und zwei Gründe für einige. Das Fest Matzot (Ungesäuerte Brote) bringt den Auszug aus Ägypten in Erinnerung, aber es ist auch eine Feier des Beginns der Gerstenernte (2.Mose 23:15; 3.Mose 23:4-14). Das Fest Shavuot (Wochen) ist eine Feier der Weizenernte (2.Mose 23:16; 34:22). Yom Ha-Kippurim ist ein nationaler Tag der Sühne wie in 3.Mose 16 detailliert beschrieben. Zum Schluss das Fest Sukkot (Laubhütten) erinnert an die Wanderung der Israeliten durch die Wüste und ist auch eine Feier des Einsammelns landwirtschaftlicher Früchte (2.Mose 23:16). Im Gegensatz zu all diesen Festen der Torah, hat Yom Teruah keinen klaren anderen Zweck, außer daß wir an diesem Tag zum Ruhen aufgerufen worden sind.
    Dennoch, der Name von Yom Teruah beinhaltet einen Hinweis zu seiner Bestimmung. Teruah bedeutet buchstäblich einen lauten Lärm zu machen. Dieses Wort kann den Lärm, verursacht durch eine Trompete, beschreiben, aber es beschreibt auch den Lärm, erzeugt von einer großen Menschenversammlung in Jubelgeschrei und Einklang. (4.Mose 10:5-6)
    Zum Beispiel,
    “Und es soll geschehen, wenn man das Lärmhorn anhaltend bläst, wenn ihr den Schall der Posaune höret, so soll das ganze Volk ein großes Geschrei erheben; und die Mauer der Stadt wird an ihrer Stelle einstürzen, und das Volk soll hinaufsteigen, wie ein Mann gegen sie”. Josua 6:5

    In diesem Vers kommt das Wort “schreien” zweimal vor, einmal in der Verbform von Teruah und ein zweites mal in der Form als Hauptwort Teruah. Obwohl dieser Vers den Schall des Schofars (Horn des Widders) erwähnt, beziehen sich die zwei Belege von Teruah nicht auf das Schofar. Tatsächlich bezieht sich, in diesem Vers, Teruah auf das Schreien der Israeliten, was den Fall der Mauern von Jericho zur Folge hatte.
    Während die Torah nicht ausdrücklich die Bestimmung (Zweck) von Yom Teruah erläutert, dürfte der Name darauf hinweisen, daß dies als ein Tag des öffentlichen Gebetes geplant ist. Oft bezieht sich die Verbform auf das Schreien bei einer Versammlung von Gläubigen, die im Einklang zum Allmächtigen ausrufen:
    “Klatscht in die Hände, ihr Völker alle! Jauchzet Elohym mit fröhlichem Schall!” (Psalm 47:2)

    “Jauchzet Elohym, alle Länder” (Psalm 66:1)

    “Singet zu Elohym, der unsere Stärke ist, jauchzet dem Elohym Jakobs” (Psalm 81:2)

    “Jauchzet zu Yehovah, alle Länder!” (Psalm 100:1)

    In 3.Mose 23:24 wird Yom Teruah auch als Zichron Teruah bezeichnet. Das Wort Zichron wird manchmal als “gedenken” übersetzt, aber dieses Hebräische Wort bedeutet auch “erwähnen”, oft im Bezug den Namen Yehovah auszusprechen. Zum Beispiel, 2.Mose 3:15; Yeshayahu 12:4; Yeshayahu 26:13; Psalm 45:18. Der Tag Zichron Teruah, der “Erwähnungs-Ruf”, dürfte auf einen Tag der Versammlung zum öffentlichem Gebet, Bezug nehmen, in der die Menge der Gläubigen den Namen Yehovah im Einklang ausruft.
    Heutzutage, nur wenige Menschen besinnen sich des biblischen Namens von Yom Teruah, stattdessen ist dieser Tag weit bekannt als “Rosh HaShana” was buchstäblich “Kopf des Jahres” bedeutet und deshalb auch “Neues Jahr”. Die Umwandlung von Yom Teruah (Tag des Rufens) in Rosh HaShana (Neues Jahr) ist das Resultat heidnisch Babylonischen Einflusses auf die Jüdische Nation. Der Einstieg in die Umwandlung war die Aneignung der Babylonischen Monatsnamen. In der Torah, sind die Monate nummeriert als Erster Monat, Zweiter Monat, Dritter Monat, etc. (3.Mose 23; 4.Mose 28). Während ihres Aufenthalts in Babylon fingen unsere Vorfahren damit an die Babylonischen Monatsnamen zu gebrauchen, eine Tatsache die im Talmud bereitwillig zugegeben wird:

    “Die Namen der Monate kamen mit ihnen aus Babylonien.” (Jerusalem Talmud, Rosh Hashanah 1:2 56d)

    Die heidnische Natur der Babylonischen Monatsnamen ist versinnbildlicht durch den vierten Monat bekannt als Tammuz. In der Babylonischen Religion, ist Tammuz der Gott des Getreides, dessen jährlichen Tod und Auferstehung, Fruchtbarkeit in die Welt brachte. Im Buch Ezekiel, beschreibt der Prophet eine Reise nach Jerusalem, in der er die Jüdischen Frauen im Tempel sitzen sah “weinen über Tammuz” (Ezekiel 8:14) Der Grund ihres Weinens über Tammuz war dieser, daß nach der Babylonischen Mythology, Tammuz getötet wurde, aber noch nicht auferstanden war. Im alten Babylonien war die Zeit des Weinens über Tammuz der frühe Sommer, wenn der Regen im ganzen Nahen Osten zu Ende geht und das Grün der Vegetation durch die sengende Sonne verbrennt. Bis zum heutigen Tage ist im Rabbinischen Kalender der Vierte Monat, als der Monat des Tammuz bekannt und es ist immer noch eine Zeit des Weinens und der Trauer.

    Einige der Babylonischen Monatsnamen fanden ihren Weg in die späteren Bücher des Tanakh, aber sie erscheinen immer nebenher mit den Torah Monatsnamen. Zum Beispiel, Esther 3:7 sagt:
    “Im ersten Monat, das ist der Monat Nissan, im zwölften Jahre des Königs Achashverosh..”

    Dieser Vers beginnt mit dem Torahnamen für den Monat (“ersten Monat”) und dann wird dieser Monat in sein heidnisches Pendant (“das ist der Monat Nissan”) übersetzt. Zur Zeit Esthers, lebten alle Juden in den Grenzen des Persischen Weltreichs und die Perser wendeten den Babylonischen Kalender für ihre zivile Verwaltung ihres Gebietes an. Anfangs benutzten die Juden nebenbei die Torahnamen für die Monate, doch mit der Zeit wurde der Gebrauch von Torahnamen für die Monate, fallen gelassen.
    Als das Jüdische Volk sich mehr an die Babylonischen Monatsnamen gewöhnte, wurden sie gegenüber anderen Babylonischen Einflüssen mehr empfänglich. Das ist ungefähr so, wie wenn Amerikanische Juden Hanukkah als eine Jüdische Version von Weihnachten halten. Die Beeinflussung fing an mit der scheinbar harmlosen Tradition an Hanukkah Geschenke zu überreichen. Bis zum Zeitpunkt daß die Juden in Amerika ankamen, war diese Tradition unbekannt und es ist immer noch eine Seltenheit in Israel, wo Hanukkah nicht mit Weihnachten um Herz und Verstand der Jüdischen Jugend wetteifern muß. Nachdem nun Hanukkah diesen relativ gehaltlosen Aspekt von Weihnachten annahm, wurde es noch reifer für gravierendere Einflüsse. Heute haben viele Amerikanische Juden den Brauch eingeführt, einen “Hanukkah Busch” aufzustellen, als eine Jüdische Alternative zum Weihnachtsbaum. Diese Juden wollten nicht gerade direkt Weihnachten adoptieren, also “Judahisierten” sie ganz einfach den Weihnachtsbaum und integrierten es in Hanukkah hinein. Dieses Beispiel zeigt, wie einfach man durch Praktiken fremder Religionen beeinflusst werden kann, besonders wenn es im Ansatz Gemeinsamkeiten gibt. Die Tatsache, daß Hanukkah oft in die gleiche Zeit wie Weihnachten fällt, macht es für Amerikanische Juden normal, Elemente von Weihnachten in das Beachten von Hanukkah zu integrieren.
    So wie die Juden in Amerika durch Weihnachten beeinflusst wurden, so wurden die alten Rabbis durch die heidnisch Babylonische Religion beeinflusst. Obwohl viel Juden nach Judea zurückkehrten, nachdem das Exil 516 BCE (vor unserer Zeitrechnung) offiziell endete, blieben die Vorfahren der Rabbis zurück in Babylonien, dort wo rabbinisches Judentum langsam Gestalt annahm. Viele der frühbekannten Rabbis, wie Hillel I waren in Babylon geboren und unterrichtet. Sicher ist, Babylon blieb das Zentrum Babylonischen Heidentums bis zum Fall des Gaonat im 11. Jahrhundert CE. Sicher ist, heidnische Gottheiten tauchen im Talmud auf, aufbereitet als “Jüdische” Engel und Dämonen. (*Zwi Cahn)
    Ein Bereich von Babylonisch religiösen Einfluss bestand in der Beachtung von Yom Teruah als eine Neu Jahr Feier. Seit sehr frühen Zeiten hatten die Babylonier einen lunar-solaren Kalender sehr ähnlich zum biblischen Kalender. Das Ergebnis war, daß Yom Teruah sehr oft auf das Babylonische Neujahr-Festival “Akitu” fiel.
    Das Babylonische Festival Akitu fiel auf den 1.Tag von Tishrei, der mit Yom Teruah am 1. Tag des Siebten Monats zusammenfiel. Als Juden anfingen den “Siebten Monat” mit dem Namen “Tishrei” zu bezeichnen, bereitete dies den Weg Yom Teruah in ein Jüdisches Akitu zu verwandeln. Gleichzeitig wollten die Rabbis Akitu nicht direkt übernehmen, also Judahisierten sie dies, indem sie den Namen Yom Teruah (Tag des Rufens) in Rosh Hashanah (Neu Jahr) veränderten. Die Tatsache, daß die Torah keinen Grund für Yom Teruah gab, machte es für die Rabbis zweifellos leichter dies als das Jüdische Neu Jahr zu verkündigen.
    Es ist geradezu bizarr Yom Teruah als Neu Jahr zu feiern. Dieses biblische Fest fällt auf den ersten tag des Siebten Monats. Allerdings, im Kontext der Babylonischen Kultur, war dies vollkommen natürlich. Die Babylonier zelebrierten sogar Akitu, Neujahr, zweimal jährlich, einmal am ersten Tishrei und nochmal sechs Monate später am ersten des Nissan. Das erste Babylonische Akitu Fest fiel auf Yom Teruah und das zweite Akitu fiel auf das eigentliche Neujahr, in der Torah als Erster Tag des Ersten Monats, zusammen. Während die Rabbis Yom Teruah als Neujahr proklamierten, anerkannten sie immer noch, daß in der Torah der 1. Tag des “Ersten Monats” so wie der Name es andeutet, ebenfalls ein Neujahr war. Sie konnten dies schwer anhand von 2.Mose 12:2 ableugnen, wo es heisst:

    “Dieser Monat soll euch der Anfang der Monate sein, er soll euch der erste sein von den Monaten des Jahres.”

    Der Kontext dieses Verses handelt von der Feier des Festes der Ungesäuerten Brote, was auf den Ersten Monat fällt. Im Lichte dieses Verses, konnten die Rabbis nicht verleugnen, daß der erste Tag des Ersten Monats ein biblisches Neujahr war. Aber im kulturellen Zusammenhang Babyloniens, wo Akitu zweimal als Neujahr gefeiert wurde, macht es durchaus Sinn, daß Yom Teruah ein zweites Neujahr sein konnte, obwohl es im Siebten Monat war.

    Im Kontrast zum Babylonischen Heidentum, sagt oder setzt die Torah nicht voraus, daß Yom Teruah irgendwas mit Neujahr zu tun hat. Im Gegensatz, das Fest Sukkot (Laubhütten), welches genau zwei Wochen nach Yom Teruah stattfindet, wird in einem Vers als “den Ausgang des Jahres” erwähnt (2.Mose 23:16). Das wäre so, als wenn man im modernen westlichen Kalender den 15. Januar “den Ausgang des Jahres” bezeichnen würde. Die Torah würde Sukkot nicht in dieser Art und Weise beschreiben, wenn sie die Absicht hätte, Yom Teruah als Neujahr zu zelebrieren.

    Einige moderne Rabbis argumentierten, daß Yom Teruah in Ezekiel 40:1 auf Rosh Hashanah hinweist, was eine Vision des Propheten beschreibt, “im Anfang des Jahres (Rosh Hashanah) am Zehnten des Monats”. Tatsächlich aber beweist Ezekiel 40:1, daß der Ausdruck “Rosh Hashanah” nicht “Neujahr” bedeutet. Stattdessen, beinhaltet der Ausdruck die wörtliche Bedeutung, dem “Kopf des Jahres”, und bezieht sich auf den Ersten Monat im Torah Kalender. Der 10. Tag von Rosh Hashanah in Ezekiel 40:1 bezieht sich auf den 10. Tag des Ersten Monats.

    Yom Teruah wird in der folgenden Bibelpassage erwähnt:

    “Und Yehovah redete zu Mose und sprach: Rede zu den Kindern Israel und sprich: Im Siebten Monat, am Ersten des Monats, soll euch Ruhe (Shabbaton) sein, ein Gedächtnis des Posaunenhalls, eine heilige Versammlung. Keinerlei Dienstarbeit sollt ihr tun, und ihr sollt Yehovah ein Feueropfer darbringen”. 3.Mose 23:23-25

    “Und im siebten Monat, am Ersten des Monats, soll euch eine heilige Versammlung sein; keinerlei Dienstarbeit sollt ihr tun; ein Tag des Posaunenhalls soll es euch sein…..” 4. Mose 29:1-6

    Frage: Was ist mit 3.Mose 25:9?

    Antwort: Einige Leute argumentieren, daß Yom Teruah als Neujahr gelten soll, weil es der Anfang des Schabatjahres sei. Indessen sagt die Torah nicht, daß Yom Teruah der Anfang des Schabatjahres ist und allen Anzeichen nach, fängt das Schabatjahr am 1.Tag des Ersten Monats an. Die Torah sagt folgendes:

    “Und du sollst im Siebten Monat, am Zehnten des Monats, den Schall des Schofars ergehen lassen; an dem Versöhnungstage sollt ihr das Schofar ergehen lassen durch euer ganzes Land.” (3.Mose 25:9)

    Dieser Vers sagt aus, daß ein Schofar benutzt werden soll um die Ankunft des Jubeljahres anzukündigen, das 50ste Jahr im Sabbatischen System. Dies sagt nicht, daß das Jubeljahr am Tag der Versöhnung beginnt, es sagt nur, daß die bevorstehende Ankunft des Jubeljahrs am Tag der Versöhnung verkündet wird. Das Schofar wird im ganzen Land an Yom Kippur des 49sten Jahres geblasen, sechs Monate vor dem Beginn des kommenden Jubeljahres. Diese Interpretation wird durch den unmittelbar folgenden Kontext in 3.Mose 25 unterstützt. Vers 8 sagt aus, 49 Jahre zu zählen, in Vers 9 steht, das Schofar im ganzen Land erschallen zu lassen, und Vers 10 sagt das 50ste Jahr als das Jubeljahr zu verkündigen. Dies zeigt, daß die Ankündigung des neuen Jubeljahrs mit dem Schofar in Vers 9 durch das Land geht, bevor das Jubeljahr tatsächlich verkündet wird, in Vers 10.

    Frage: Ist der Siebte Monat nicht der Beginn des landwirtschaftlichen Zyklus?

    Antwort: In der Torah ist eigentlich die Mitte des Siebten Monats das Ende des landwirtschaftlichen Zyklus’. Im Land Israel wird das Getreide im Herbst angesät und im Frühjahr geerntet. Der neue landwirtschaftliche Zyklus würde bis zum Pflügen der Felder nicht wirklich beginnen. Das würde nicht stattfinden, bis die ersten leichten Niederschläge, den Boden befeuchten, um durch eiserne und hölzerne Pflüge gebrochen zu werden. Im Lande Israel könnte dies frühestens Mitte des Siebten Monats aber für gewöhnlich ist es der Achte Monat oder später. Nach der oberen Logik, müsste der Achte Monat als Beginn des Jahres betrachtet werden, nicht der Siebte Monat.

    *Zvi Cahn, The Rise of the Karaite Sect, New York 1937, pages 98–101. Cahn’s zentrale Thesis besagt, daß die Verweigerung der rabbinischen Leiter das tief-verwurzelte Babylonische Heidentum zurückzuweisen, welches den Babylonischen Judaismus infiltrierte, führte im frühen Mittelalter zur Entstehung der Karaiten, einer Zurück-zur-Bibel Bewegung. In diesem Zusammenhang liefert Cahn eine detaillierte Liste verschiedener heidnischer Einflüsse im rabbinischen Judaismus.

  31. Nehemia, I thought this article very helpful to get rid of some misunderstandings. I decided to translate it into German language. Would it be ok to send it to you? or post it in here?

  32. Thank you for the information as to the truth ; and to open our eyes to the truth.
    I had my share of doubts to the many teachings of Rabbi`s . However i do not follow the Oral Law. I have heard it as the name Peh Ba`al . Ba`al is husband in Hebrew. As husband or head meaning authority I can see why the Oral Law has become to the Rabbi`s having more authority then the Tanach .

  33. Thank you for sharing this. When I started leaving traditional Christianity behind 20 years ago and sought out the Hebrew Roots of my faith. I read about the True new year according to Exodus 12:2 was 14 days before passover in the month of Abib and questioned why the New Year was celebrated in the fall I was always told that it was the “Civil” new Year and they left it at that but I read nothing in the word to back this claim in the word of Yah. I am glad for this clarification of how this came about. Babylon as ususal!

  34. i was investigating Johnathan Cahn’s Shmita claim that the stock market crashes 2001/2008 coincide with the Sabbath years, to force a resetting of the financial system. Jonathan says its always on Elul 29 the last day of the Shmita year. I had thought there were two systems, religious (Spring new year, Abib/Nissan) and civil (fall new year, Tishri). Now I am confused, If Johanthan’s reckoning (last year of the shmita stock market collapse) follows an end of the year calender at all.

    • I was thinking the same thing…

      Thanks to Nehemia, a lot has been cleared up.

      If the year was established in Exodus 12, and there is no other evidence to support 1 Tishri as a new year (of any kind), then the Shemitah year must begin on 1 Nisan.

      That means the Shemitah year begins in March 2015, not Sept. 2014 (as Cahn claims).

      If we go back 7 years each cycle, the tribulations line up in the middle of these Shemitah years instead of the ends.

      It also makes sense, if the Feast of Trumpets are a time of judgement/proclaimation, in the time before radio, TV, internet, etc, the time would have been weeks and even months, before the event actually happened.

      • Thank you Alan for the information you have given. The Shemitah has to begin in the month of the Aviv as you say, and not in Tishri.

        I have come across Rabbi Cahn’s videos just over the last few days and have not been able to reconcile my confusion – the same as Rik’s comments above.

        I’ve believed that Shemitah starts in the month of the Aviv, and when I heard him speak on how everything coincided with the end of the shemitah (that is…obviously to him…Tishri), I had to sit back & try to find out if we who believe in the Aviv for the ‘beginning of the year’ have got it all wrong.

        But what you say “if we go back seven years each cycle, the tribulations line up in the “middle of these Shemitah years instead of the ends”, then I am relieved…I understand that and it makes sense.

        Could you please explain your last paragraph ‘in the time before radio, TV, internet, etc, the time would have been weeks and even months, before the event actually happened.’

        • Also, 9-11-2001, was not on Elul 29 (smittah as Cahn reports) 9-11-2001 rather at evening it was Elul 24, the 7 year pattern can fit more closely the punishment for House of Israel, two things no Shabbat and idolatry. The Stong’s Chumas shows there were 5 sets of 7 punishments, and you can see the 1st set on events that happened beginning 9-11-2001, then 2008 and upon us perhaps 2015, not saying Elul 29 but rather Elul 24; which on Gregorian calendar is Sept 8, there is a reference to Elul 24 in Haggai, and also Nehemia, Sept 8, Sept 9th is when the Sanhedrian called Obama to come to stand before them in court case.There is rumored that IsIs plans to attack churches and schools on that day; so be in prayer and heads up. In the Levitcus 26 punishments is an illusion in the Hebrew to a female (Isis) attack.

        • Penney:

          “And you shall pass a shofar of blasting in the Seventh Month on the tenth of the month; on the Day of Atonement, you shall pass a shofar throughout all your land.” (Leviticus 25:9)

          If the Shofar (trumpet) is “passed around” throughout Israel, then it would have been a long process, and, if the true Jubilee year begins 5 months (sometimes 6 on the Hebrew leap year calender).

          Another clue that supports this, is the Rabbi Cahn (whom I do support) said that there is a “tail end” effect, that happened after 1 Tishri, that lasted months. I personally recall 1973 (shemitah year), and there was a lot of bad events taking place well into the fall and winter-we were still in the Shemitah year.

          I refer now to the events around Elul 29 as the “Shemitah Cycle”

  35. Shalom Brother Nehemia
    This is Charles from China.
    We got a boy and a girl , YHWH has granted our wishes.

    I get the same feeling as you do when jewish brothers and sisters wish me Shanah Tovah on Yom Teruah.
    I do not answer back with Shanah Tovah but instead happy Yom Teruah but they do not understand what I am talking about.
    I tell them the Shanah Tovah that YHWH has given us was seven months ago and that day should be one of the most important day in the jewish calendar, the creation of the world and the official opening of the tabernacle in the desert.

    My Elohim be with you Nehemiah and sorry to have missed you in China.

  36. for as long as I can remember….I have always believed that nothing should be added or taken away from scripture….so I have always been adamant about following any kind of tradition other than scriptural purity….rejecting all pagan tradition….from both sides of the fence….whether gentile or jewish….to me if it is not found in the torah….then it is not kosher…..including the talmud….and hanukkah…..I often find myself a lone wolf in my views….as the world seems to embrace all kinds of man made traditions and pagan practices…..after finding this site….yes it is like a breath of fresh air to find that there are those who think as myself…..however…there is one unfortunate exception..that is not found here…which I am greatly disappointed……I consider myself a messianic believer (messianic judaism)….in the messiah Yeshua….if there is such a thing as a karaite messianic believer……then that would describe me perfectly…I wish there was a karaite messianic congregation…to me that would be scriptural perfection…..

    .but I must also confess that I reject the book of esther….there are no verses referenced any where in the tanakh…neither was the book of esther found in the dead sea scrolls….all other books were found except esther……….which by the way sounds too close to the term easter….linked to the terms ishtar…..ashtarte……strangely this odd book never mentions god…or his laws..but only speaks of a queen ….again too close to the well known queen of heaven….I am highly suspicious of that book as far as I am concerned it does not belong as part of holy writings….even by the way it is written…….the way it is written sounds very pretentious ….it sounds like someone wrote it trying to make t sound holy….but it very clearly isnt…..it almost sounds comical….and I am surprised that nobody sees this….

    anyway I’m still glad that I found this site…I do appreciate it’s all out attempt for true scriptural accuracy….which I value very highly…..

    • The book of Esther seems to be a book of Jewish history. It may not be scripture or part of the tanakh but it records a part of the life of a God-fearing woman and how God used her to save lives in a time of persecution. It may not be scripture but it has value as a history book because it shows God saving people who refused to worship an earthly king.

    • I hate to burst your bubble genecorpusg ,
      but there could not be a Karaite Messianic. Karaite is Jewish and does not believe in Yeshua/Jesus. But I have been a Messianic before and it is REALLY a mix of Jewish and Xtian belief. The very fact that you still hold on to a pagan idol (Jesus) is the very definition of xtian belief.

      • I was going by this name for a while, but I did not write anything about Karaite Messianic. I was Messianic before I came out of all that xtian stuff that they still believe.

    • Dear genecorpusg,

      Personally, I don’t have any issues with traditions that don’t clash with the Word – though I’m aware that it can be difficult and unclear to decipher the true origins of some long-standing traditions.

      As far as your wanting an assembly of believers in Yeshua as the Messiah without paganism…hang in there! One day, one day. After all, every tongue will acknowledge one day, and truth will be with us.

      In the meantime, be comforted in knowing that you are not alone.

      So reflect the light, and shalom!

    • Hi HK, according to Michael Rood the Day Of Trumpets during the ministry of Yeshua is covered by Matt.15:1-20 and Mark 7:1-23 where he is confronted by the Pharisees at Kfar Nahum but there is no direct ref. to the Feast.

      Nehemia has provided an excellent commentary here and makes me consider another alternative possibility which arises from Horowitz et al. Consider the purified crystal waters of Revelation 22:1/2 Enoch 67:8. Then consider the 144,000 (Rev. 14:1-3) with their music and sound. Horowitz considers this to be the ‘shout’ that will transform Earth back to Eden. This New Earth is also mentioned in the Qur’an in surah 14:48.

      Alternative references can be found in Mormon doctrine; Doctrine & Covenants 29:13, For a trump shall sound both long and loud, even as upon Mount Sinai, and all the earth shall quake, and they shall come forth-yea, even the dead which died in me, to receive a crown of righteousness, and to be clothed upon, even as I am, to be with me, that we may be one, also 29:26 and 43:18. Chapter 29 appears to be a genuine Messianic revelation. It is met with a great deal of disinterest from contemporary LDS church members.

      The Qur’an holds multiple references to the fulfilment of Torah and the Day Of Trumpets. Surahs 20:102, 27:87,36:51,53, 39:68, 50:20,42, 69:13, 78:18, 80:33. Again, no one I have met in Islam wants to know the Torah which is reverenced in the Qur’an. Humanity is cursed with ignorance and a focus on the delusion of this life. God will judge between us on the Day Of Resurrection concerning that over which we used to differ (2:113).

  37. Nehemiah, you are a breath of fresh air…. I have been watching and reading your information for several years and I would so love to spend some time with questions that my husband and I have had for several years now from our own studies……. we nearly converted to Orthodox Judaism until we began to study for the conversion and compared what they wanted us to study to what the Torah had to say…… We were, before our intent to convert, what they call Ben Noah, our studies kept us moving forward, or so we thought…. till we learned better…… it is BIBLICAL Israel not rabbinical Israel that peaople need to seek. this is the first time I have heard a Jew explain what we found in our studies! Thank you!

    • Hi Pam, we are exactly on the same route, is it possible to share resources? I can be emailed and if not shared with you let me know? We also turned from rabbincal to Scriptural. Thank you Dolf

  38. I thank Jehovah for you Nehemiah and your commitment to right information because it opens up the truth to us and is helping us to return to Him and to His ways.

  39. Some years ago on The Day of Shouting Jewish men gathered at The Wall and did just this and they shouted out The Name of Jehovah. My prayer is that other Children of The Name will be so bold!! The other intresting point (one cry) was the passing around the shofar, since there where no telephones. I invision this shofar going from hand to hand (a year prior to the 50th year it would take that long for information to go though out the land) making the one (echad) the Children of God in their hearts. The shouting of The Fathers Name needs to return may the men of Israel do so again this coming Day of Shouting. In some way this might tie in with the statement “where ever your foot has stepped it will be your land” Our hearts and hands connecting to The Father in The Spirit …how beautiful…how humble should be our hearts What LOVE..The Father has for us(echad). May He show us even greater mercy and in Truth. Nehemia could you ask someone to start passing a shofar around Israel for this coming year leading up to the 50th yea. My belief is that Yeshua/Jesus is The Messiah let each man decide for themselves this point of the heart.

  40. כתבה מאד מענינת ומכנכת. תודה רבה. אפשר להגיב “אקיטו שמח” למי שמאחל “שנה טובה.”? אך לבסוף יש לשאול מה המטרה בהבגביה קולות. לשם מה זה משרת? הלא אדוני יודע את שמו ואינו זקוק לתריעותינו? ועוד רושם של הקולות אינו נמשך הרבה זמן ואילו אם כותבים את שמותיו ומדברים עליהם יותר מהרגיל ביום מיוחד בשנה אולי זה מרשים יותר מסתם הימל געשרייען. יום תרועה שמח.

    • Festival allowances (such as Exodus 12:16) do not override commanded Shabbat restrictions. While we usually are allowed to cook on the Festival days, when they fall on the Shabbat, we cannot cook because Shabbat commandments forbid cooking

      • Dear Lori (what a beautiful sound as a name..)& dear all the others,

        Maybe I am missing many things here but the main point is that Moses brought the law and Jesus grew the love : understanding of goodness – after all. You cannot carry a heavy bag on sabbath/festival days, yet for an elderly woman who cannot do that alone anymore whether she be of christian or muslim/babylonian or buddist, etc. origin, like I did this morning by bike. She was from Slovakia and she replied to me that indeed today was a day of feast for Mary, mother of Jesus. Nowhere either I can find anyone instead preaching the prayers to our mother earth as proposed in several scrolls/manuscripts excavated from tombs or libraries. You cannot preach to anyone -that’s what I like here on this site. You can inform/share important (polarised) opinions l, but for me it’s almost too hard to obey the Torah ALONE, after all AGAINST the bad will of people in my surroundings… I couldn’t talk about my religious feelings until I changed my nutrition as Yeshua warm-heartedly explained and prescribed in the Gospel of the Essenes (“the angels of the mother”). I CALL IT: THE Fresh ENERGETIC raw food. My life was saved by that. Furthermore, I am spending only150,- a month for my whole consumption and I wouod propose that to the floods of immigrants coming nearby this year as well. The more people you convince to eat with you – the fresher and less expensive the fruits of the local earth gets. I would even have shouted that against or versus the rich people in the world so they will understand. No cooking or meat burning is necessary – whom for…?
        Love & peace to ye all.

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